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Q281. Which IPv6 tunneling mechanism requires a service provider to use one of its own native IPv6 blocks to guarantee that its IPv6 hosts will be reachable?
A. 6rd tunneling
B. automatic 6to4 tunneling
C. NAT-PT tunneling
D. ISATAP tunneling
E. manual ipv6ip tunneling
F. automatic 4to6 tunneling
Q282. Refer to the exhibit.
All switches have default bridge priorities, and originate BPDUs with MAC addresses as indicated. The numbers shown are STP link metrics.
After STP converges, you discover that traffic from switch SWG toward switch SWD takes a less optimal path. What can you do to optimize the STP tree in this switched network?
A. Change the priority of switch SWA to a lower value than the default value.
B. Change the priority of switch SWB to a higher value than the default value.
C. Change the priority of switch SWG to a higher value than the default value.
D. Change the priority of switch SWD to a lower value than the default value.
In this topology, we see that all port paths and priorities are the same, so the lowest MAC address will be used to determine the best STP path. From SWG, SWE will be chosen as the next switch in the path because it has a lower MAC address than SWF. From SWE, traffic will go to SWC because it has a lower MAC address, and then to SWD, instead of going from SWE directly to SWD. If we lower the priority of SWD (lower means better with STP) then traffic will be sent directly to SWD.
Q283. In a nonbackbone OSPF area, all traffic that is destined to the Internet is routed by using a default route that is originated by the ABR. Which change in the configuration of the OSPF area type causes traffic from that area that is destined to the Internet to be dropped?
A. The OSPF area changes from NSSA to totally stubby area.
B. The OSPF area changes from NSSA to regular area.
C. The OSPF area changes from stub area to totally stubby area.
D. The OSPF area changes from stub area to NSSA.
The ABR for the NSSA generates the default route, but not by default. To force the ABR to generate the default route, use the area <area id> nssa default-information originate command. The ABR generates a Type 7 LSA with the link-state ID 0.0.0.0 and is advertised inside the NSSA. This default route will be propagated inside the NSSA as Type 7 LSA
Q284. Which statement is true regarding the UDP checksum?
A. It is used for congestion control.
B. It cannot be all zeros.
C. It is used by some Internet worms to hide their propagation.
D. It is computed based on the IP pseudo-header.
The method used to compute the checksum is defined in RFC 768: “Checksum is the 16-bit one's complement of the one's complement sum of a pseudo header of information from the IP header, the UDP header, and the data, padded with zero octets at the end (if necessary) to make a multiple of two octets.” In other words, all 16-bit words are summed using one's complement arithmetic. Add the 16-bit values up. Each time a carry-out (17th bit) is produced, swing that bit around and add it back into the least significant bit. The sum is then one's complemented to yield the value of the UDP checksum field. If the checksum calculation results in the value zero (all 16 bits 0) it should be sent as the one's complement (all 1s).
Q285. Refer to the exhibit.
Which two actions can you take to enable CE-1 at site A to access the Internet? (Choose two.)
A. Create a default route for site A on PE-1 with the next hop set to the PE-2 interface to the Internet.
B. Originate a default route in site B with the next hop set to the PE-2 Internet interface, and import the default route into site A.
C. Create a default route on CE-1 with the next hop set to the PE-1 upstream interface.
D. Originate a default route in site A with the next hop set to the PE-2 interface to CE-1.
E. Create a static default route on CE-1 with the next hop set to the PE-2 interface to the Internet.
Q286. Which three types of traffic are allowed by IEEE 802.1X access control prior to getting authenticated? (Choose three.)
Until the client is authenticated, IEEE 802.1x access control allows only Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL), Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), and Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) traffic through the port to which the client is connected. After authentication, normal traffic passes through the port.
Q287. Which two statements about the function of a PIM designated router are true? (Choose two.)
A. It forwards multicast traffic from the source into the PIM network.
B. It registers directly connected sources to the PIM rendezvous point.
C. It sends PIM Join/Prune messages for directly connected receivers.
D. It sends IGMP queries.
E. It sends PIM asserts on the interfaces of the outgoing interface list.
In PIM ASM and SSM modes, the software chooses a designated router (DR) from the routers on each network segment. The DR is responsible for forwarding multicast data for specified groups and sources on that segment. In ASM mode, the DR is responsible for unicasting PIM register packets to the RP. When a DR receives an IGMP membership report from a directly connected receiver, the shortest path is formed to the RP, which may or may not go through the DR. The result is a shared tree that connects all sources transmitting on the same multicast group to all receivers of that group. In SSM mode, the DR triggers (*, G) or (S, G) PIM join messages toward the RP or the source. The path from the receiver to the source is determined hop by hop. The source must be known to the receiver or the DR.
Q288. Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is true about the downward bit?
A. It forces the CE router to use a backup link instead of sending traffic via MPLS VPN.
B. It informs the PE router that the LSA metric has been recently decreased to 1 and that partial SPF calculation cannot be delayed.
C. It forces the CE router to install the LSA with the downward bit set into its routing table as a discard route.
D. It informs the PE router that the LSA was already redistributed into BGP by another PE router and that the LSA must not be redistributed into BGP again.
From RFC 4577, specifically section 126.96.36.199
When a type 3 LSA is sent from a PE router to a CE router, the DN bit [OSPF-DN] in the LSA Options field MUST be set. This is used to ensure that if any CE router sends this type 3 LSA to a PE router, the PE router will not redistribute it further.
When a PE router needs to distribute to a CE router a route that comes from a site outside the latter’s OSPF domain, the PE router presents itself as an ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router), and distributes the route in a type 5 LSA. The DN bit [OSPF-DN] MUST be set in these LSAs to ensure that they will be ignored by any other PE routers that receive them.
Q289. Which statement describes the effect of the configuration line redistribute maximum-prefix 1500 90 withdraw?
A. After the 1500th route is redistributed, a warning is posted in the log file and 90 more routes are redistributed before further routes are discarded.
B. After the 1350th route is redistributed, a warning is posted in the log file until the 1500th route is redistributed, and then further routes are discarded.
C. After the 1500th route is redistributed, further routes are discarded only if the CPU is above 90%.
D. The routing protocol receives 1500 routes. After the routing process has redistributed 90% of the routes, the process supernets routes and injects a NULL route to prevent black-hole routing.
Q290. DRAG DROP
Drag and drop the SNMP element on the left to the corresponding definition on the right.
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