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Q431. Which statement about a type 4 LSA in OSPF is true?
A. It is an LSA that is originated by an ABR, that is flooded throughout the AS, and that describes a route to the ASBR.
B. It is an LSA that is originated by an ASBR, that is flooded throughout the AS, and that describes a route to the ASBR.
C. It is an LSA that is originated by an ASBR, that is flooded throughout the area, and that describes a route to the ASBR.
D. It is an LSA that is originated by an ABR, that is flooded throughout the AS, and that describes a route to the ABR.
E. It is an LSA that is originated by an ABR, that is flooded throughout the area, and that describes a route to the ASBR.
LSA Type 4 (called Summary ASBR LSA) is generated by the ABR to describe an ASBR to routers in other areas so that routers in other areas know how to get to external routes through that ASBR.
Q432. Refer to the exhibit.
Which three statements about this configuration are true? (Choose three.)
A. The default route appears in the global routing table.
B. The static route appears in the VRF red routing table.
C. The subnet 192.168.1.0 is unique to the VRF red routing table.
D. The static route is added to the global routing table and leaked from the VRF red.
E. The subnet 192.168.1.0 is unique to the global routing table.
F. 192.168.1.1 is reachable using any of the addresses on the router where the static route is configured.
This is an example of the route leaking feature. Here, this static route is created for the red VRF so it will be installed into the red VRF routing table, but the use of the global keyword will cause this default route to appear in the global routing table.
Q433. Which mechanism can be used on Layer 2 switches so that only multicast packets with downstream receivers are sent on the multicast router-connected ports?
A. IGMP snooping
B. Router Guard
C. PIM snooping
D. multicast filtering
Ideally, the Layer 2 device should forward the multicast transmission only out ports to which receivers are connected and also out any ports that are connected to downstream multicast routers. This configuration requires a Layer 2 device to be able to determine the ports on which multicast routers and receivers for each separate (S,G) or (*,G) multicast group are located. To facilitate intelligent forwarding of multicast traffic on the LAN, Cisco Catalyst switches support two mechanisms:
. IGMP snooping — The switch listens in or "snoops" IGMP communications between receivers and multicast routers. This snooping enables the switch to determine which ports are connected to receivers for each multicast group and which ports are connected to multicast routers.
. Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) — The switch communicates with multicasts routers, with multicast routers relaying group membership information to switches.
Q434. Which statement about MSS is true?
A. It is negotiated between sender and receiver.
B. It is sent in all TCP packets.
C. It is 20 bytes lower than MTU by default.
D. It is sent in SYN packets.
E. It is 28 bytes lower than MTU by default.
The maximum segment size (MSS) is a parameter of the Options field of the TCP header that specifies the largest amount of data, specified in octets, that a computer or communications device can receive in a single TCP segment. It does not count the TCP header or the IP header. The IP datagram containing a TCP segment may be self-contained within a single packet, or it may be reconstructed from several fragmented pieces; either way, the MSS limit applies to the total amount of data contained in the final, reconstructed TCP segment. The default TCP Maximum Segment Size is 536. Where a host wishes to set the maximum segment size to a value other than the default, the maximum segment size is specified as a TCP option, initially in the TCP SYN packet during the TCP handshake. The value cannot be changed after the connection is established.
Q435. Which two statements about 802.1Q tunneling are true? (Choose two.)
A. It requires a system MTU of at least 1504 bytes.
B. The default configuration sends Cisco Discovery Protocol, STP, and VTP information.
C. Traffic that traverses the tunnel is encrypted.
D. It is supported on private VLAN ports.
E. MAC-based QoS and UDLD are supported on tunnel ports.
F. Its maximum allowable system MTU is 1546 bytes.
Q436. In an STP domain, which two statements are true for a nonroot switch, when it receives a configuration BPDU from the root bridge with the TC bit set? (Choose two.)
A. It sets the MAC table aging time to max_age time.
B. It sets the MAC table aging time to forward_delay time.
C. It recalculates the STP topology upon receiving topology change notification from the root switch.
D. It does not recalculate the STP topology upon receiving topology change notification from the root switch.
Q437. Which statement is true regarding UDLD and STP timers?
A. The UDLD message timer should be two times the STP forward delay to prevent loops.
B. UDLD and STP are unrelated features, and there is no relation between the timers.
C. The timers need to be synced by using the spanning-tree udld-sync command.
D. The timers should be set in such a way that UDLD is detected before the STP forward delay expires.
UDLD is designed to be a helper for STP. Therefore, UDLD should be able to detect an unidirectional link before STP would unblock the port due to missed BPDUs. Thus, when you configure UDLD timers, make sure your values are set so that unidirectional link is detected before “STP MaxAge + 2xForwardDelay” expires.
Q438. Refer to the exhibit.
Which option is the most likely explanation of the duplicate address message logged?
A. HSRP misconfiguration
B. a PC with IP of 10.10.1.1
D. a hardware problem
Q439. External EIGRP route exchange on routers R1 and R2 was failing because the routers had duplicate router IDs. You changed the eigrp router-id command on R1, but the problem persists. Which additional action must you take to enable the routers to exchange routes?
A. Change the corresponding loopback address.
B. Change the router ID on R2.
C. Reset the EIGRP neighbor relationship.
D. Clear the EIGRP process.
Q440. Which option describes how a router responds if LSA throttling is configured and it receives the identical LSA before the interval is set?
A. The LSA is added to the OSPF database and a notification is sent to the sending router to slow down its LSA packet updates.
B. The LSA is added to the OSPF database.
C. The LSA is ignored.
D. The LSA is ignored and a notification is sent to the sending router to slow down its LSA packet updates.
How OSPF LSA Throttling Works
The timers throttle lsa all command controls the generation (sending) of LSAs. The first LSA is always generated immediately upon an OSPF topology change, and the next LSA generated is controlled by the minimum start interval. The subsequent LSAs generated for the same LSA are rate-limited until the maximum interval is reached. The "same LSA" is defined as an LSA instance that contains the same LSA ID number, LSA type, and advertising router ID.
The timers LSA arrival command controls the minimum interval for accepting the same LSA. If an instance of the same LSA arrives sooner than the interval that is set, the LSA is dropped. It is recommended that the arrival interval be less than or equal to the hold-time interval of the timers throttle lsa all command.
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