400-101 Guide

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  • Exam Number/Code 400-101
  • Product Name CCIE Routing and Switching (v5.0)
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2017 Feb ccie 400 101:

Q91. Refer to the exhibit. 

Assuming that the peer is configured correctly and the interface is up, how many neighbors will be seen in the EIGRPv6 neighbor table on this IPv6-only router? 

A. one neighbor, which will use a local router-id of 6010. AB8. . /64 

B. one neighbor, which will use a local router-id of 6020. AB8. . /64 

C. none, because EIGRPv6 only supports authenticated peers 

D. none, because of the mismatch of timers 

E. none, because there is no EIGRP router ID configured 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 has some restrictions; they are listed below: 

. The interfaces can be directly configured with EIGRP for IPv6, without the use of a global IPv6 address. There is no network statement in EIGRP for IPv6. 

. The router ID needs to be configured for an EIGRPv6 protocol instance before it can run. 

. EIGRP for IPv6 has a shutdown feature. Ensure that the routing process is in "no shut" mode to start running the protocol. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/enhanced-interior-gateway-routing-protocol-eigrp/113267-eigrp-ipv6-00.html 


Q92. Which three statements about the differences between Cisco IOS and IOS-XE functionality are true? (Choose three.) 

A. Only IOS-XE Software can host applications outside of the IOS context. 

B. Only the IOS-XE Services Plane has multiple cores. 

C. Only the IOS-XE Data Plane has multiple cores. 

D. Only the IOS-XE Control Plane has multiple cores. 

E. Only IOS-XE module management integrates with packet processing. 

F. Only IOS-XE configuration and control is integrated with the kernel. 

Answer: A,B,C 


Q93. Which statement about the overload bit in IS-IS is true? 

A. The IS-IS adjacencies on the links for which the overload bit is set are brought down. 

B. Routers running SPF ignore LSPs with the overload bit set and hence avoid blackholing traffic. 

C. A router setting the overload bit becomes unreachable to all other routers in the IS-IS area. 

D. The overload bit in IS-IS is used only for external prefixes. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The OL bit is used to prevent unintentional blackholing of packets in BGP transit networks. Due to the nature of these protocols, IS-IS and OSPF converge must faster than BGP. Thus there is a possibility that while the IGP has converged, IBGP is still learning the routes. In that case if other IBGP routers start sending traffic towards this IBGP router that has not yet completely converged it will start dropping traffic. This is because it isnt yet aware of the complete BGP routes. OL bit comes handy in such situations. When a new IBGP neighbor is added or a router restarts, the IS-IS OL bit is set. Since directly connected (including loopbacks) addresses on an “overloaded” router are considered by other routers, IBGP can be bought up and can begin exchanging routes. Other routers will not use this router for transit traffic and will route the packets out through an alternate path. Once BGP has converged, the OL bit is cleared and this router can begin forwarding transit traffic. 

Reference: https://routingfreak.wordpress.com/category/ospf-vs-is-is/ 


Q94. Which two statements about IPv4 and IPv6 networks are true? (Choose two.) 

A. In IPv6, hosts perform fragmentation. 

B. IPv6 uses a UDP checksum to verify packet integrity. 

C. In IPv6, routers perform fragmentation. 

D. In IPv4, fragmentation is performed by the source of the packet. 

E. IPv4 uses an optional checksum at the transport layer. 

F. IPv6 uses a required checksum at the network layer. 

Answer: A,B 


Q95. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop the Cisco IOS XE subpackage on the left to the function it performs on the right. 

Answer: 


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Q96. Which two Cisco IOS XE commands can install a subpackage onto a router? (Choose two.) 

A. request platform software package install rp rpSlotNumber file fileURL 

B. boot system flash bootflash:filename 

C. copy sourceUrl destinationUrl 

D. license install file storedLocationUrl 

E. issu loadversion rp identifier file diskType imageFilename 

F. config-register value 

Answer: A,C 

Explanation: 

. Managing and Configuring a Consolidated Package Using the request platform software package install Command 

In the following example, the request platform software package install command is used to upgrade a consolidated package running on RP 0. The force option, which forces the upgrade past any prompt (such as already having the same consolidated package installed), is used in this example. 

Router# request platform software package install rp 0 file bootflash:asr1000rp1-adventerprisek9.02.01.00.122-33.XNA.bin force 

To upgrade a consolidated package on the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers using the copy command, copy the consolidated package into the bootflash: directory on the router using the copy command as you would on most other Cisco routers. After making this copy, configure the router to boot using the consolidated package file. In the following example, the consolidated package file is copied onto the bootflash: file system from TFTP. The config-register is then set to boot using boot system commands, and the boot system commands instruct the router to boot using the consolidated package stored in the bootflash: file system. The new configuration is then saved using the copy running-config startup-config command, and the system is then reloaded to complete the process. 

Router# dir bootflash: 

Directory of bootflash:/ 

11 drwx 16384 Dec 4 2007 04:32:46 -08:00 lost+found 

86401 drwx 4096 Dec 4 2007 06:06:24 -08:00.ssh 

14401 drwx 4096 Dec 4 2007 06:06:36 -08:00.rollback_timer 

28801 drwx 4096 Mar 18 2008 17:31:17 -07:00.prst_sync 

43201 drwx 4096 Dec 4 2007 04:34:45 -08:00.installer 

13 -rw- 45977 Apr 9 2008 16:48:46 -07:00 target_support_output.tgz.tgz 

928862208 bytes total (712273920 bytes free) 

Router# copy tftp bootflash: 

Address or name of remote host []? 172.17.16.81 

Source filename []? /auto/tftp-users/user/asr1000rp1-adventerprisek9.02.01.00.122-33.XNA.bin 

Destination filename [asr1000rp1-adventerprisek9.02.01.00.122-33.XNA.bin]? 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/asr1000/configuration/guide/chassis/asrswcfg /Package_Management.html#78189 


Q97. What is a reason for 6PE to use two MPLS labels in the data plane instead of one? 

A. 6PE allows penultimate hop popping and has a requirement that all P routers do not have to be IPv6 aware. 

B. 6PE does not allow penultimate hop popping. 

C. It allows MPLS traffic engineering to work in a 6PE network. 

D. It allows 6PE to work in an MPLS network where 6VPE is also deployed. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Q. Why does 6PE use two MPLS labels in the data plane? 

A. 6PE uses two labels: 

. The top label is the transport label, which is assigned hop-by-hop by the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) or by MPLS traffic engineering (TE). 

. The bottom label is the label assigned by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and advertised by the internal BGP (iBGP) between the Provider Edge (PE) routers. 

When the 6PE was released, a main requirement was that none of the MPLS core routers (the P routers) had to be IPv6-aware. That requirement drove the need for two labels in the data plane. There are two reasons why the 6PE needs both labels. 

PHP Functionality 

If only the transport label were used, and if penultimate hop popping (PHP) were used, the penultimate hop router (the P router) would need to understand IPv6. 

With PHP, this penultimate hop router would need to remove the MPLS label and forward the packet as an IPv6 packet. This P router would need to know that the packet is IPv6 because the P router would need to use the correct Layer 2 encapsulation type for IPv6. (The encapsulation type is different for IPv6 and IPv4; for example, for Ethernet, the encapsulation type is 0x86DD for IPv6, while it is 0x0800 for IPv4.) If the penultimate hop router is not IPv6-capable, it would likely put the Layer 2 encapsulation type for IPv4 for the IPv6 packet. The egress PE router would then believe that the packet was IPv4. There is time-to-live (TTL) processing in both the IPv4 and IPv6 headers. In IPv6, the field is called Hop Limit. The IPv4 and IPv6 fields are at different locations in the headers. Also, the Header Checksum in the IPv4 header would also need to be changed; there is no Header Checksum field in IPv6. If the penultimate hop router is not IPv6-capable, it would cause the IPv6 packet to be malformed since the router expects to find the TTL field and Header Checksum field in the header. Because of these differences, the penultimate hop router would need to know it is an IPv6 packet. How would this router know that the packet is an IPv6 packet, since it did not assign a label to the IPv6 Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC), and there is no encapsulation field in the MPLS header? It could scan for the first nibble after the label stack and determine that the packet is IPv6 if the value is 6. However, that implies that the penultimate hop router needs to be IPv6-capable. This scenario could work if the explicit null label is used (hence no PHP). However, the decision was to require PHP. 

Load Balancing 

Typical load balancing on a P router follows this process. The P router goes to the end of the label stack and determines if it is an IPv4 packet by looking at the first nibble after the label stack. 

. If the nibble has a value of 4, the MPLS payload is an IPv4 packet, and the P router load balances by hashing the source and destination IPv4 addresses. 

. If the P router is IPv6-capable and the value of the nibble is 6, the P router load balances by hashing the source and destination IPv6 addresses. 

. If the P router is not IPv6-capable and the value of the nibble is not 4 (it could be 6 if the packet is an IPv6 packet), the P router determines it is not an IPv4 packet and makes the load balancing decision based on the bottom label. In the 6PE scenario, imagine there are two egress PE routers advertising one IPv6 prefix in BGP towards the ingress PE router. This IPv6 prefix would be advertised with two different labels in BGP. Hence, in the data plane, the bottom label would be either of the two labels. This would allow a P router to load balance on the bottom label on a per-flow basis. If 6PE used only the transport label to transport the 6PE packets through the MPLS core, the P routers would not be able to load balance these packets on a per-flow basis unless the P routers were IPv6-capable. If the P routers were IPv6-capable, they could use the source and destination IPv6 addresses in order to make a load balancing decision. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/multiprotocol-label-switching-mpls/mpls/116061-qa-6pe-00.html 


Q98. Which command correctly configures standby tracking for group 1 using the default decrement priority value? 

A. standby 1 track 100 

B. standby 1 track 100 decrement 1 

C. standby 1 track 100 decrement 5 

D. standby 1 track 100 decrement 20 

Answer:


Q99. Which technology can be used to prevent flooding of IPv6 multicast traffic on a switch? 

A. IGMP snooping 

B. IGMP filtering 

C. MLD snooping 

D. MLD filtering 

Answer:

Explanation: 

MLD snooping allows the switch to examine MLD packets and make forwarding decisions based on their content. You can configure the switch to use MLD snooping in subnets that receive MLD queries from either MLD or the MLD snooping querier. MLD snooping constrains IPv6 multicast traffic at Layer 2 by configuring Layer 2 LAN ports dynamically to forward IPv6 multicast traffic only to those ports that want to receive it. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/ios/12-2SX/configuration/guide/book/snoopmld.html 


Q100. Refer to the exhibit. 

Which statement is true? 

A. IS-IS has been enabled on R4 for IPv6, single-topology. 

B. IS-IS has been enabled on R4 for IPv6, multitopology. 

C. IS-IS has been enabled on R4 for IPv6, single-topology and multitopology. 

D. R4 advertises IPv6 prefixes, but it does not forward IPv6 traffic, because the protocol has not been enabled under router IS-IS. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

When working with IPv6 prefixes in IS-IS, you can configure IS-IS to be in a single topology for both IPv4 and IPv6 or to run different topologies for IPv4 and IPv6. By default, IS-IS works in single-topology mode when activating IPv4 and IPv6. This means that the IS-IS topology will be built based on IS Reachability TLVs. When the base topology is built, then IPv4 prefixes (IP Reachability TLV) and IPv6 prefixes (IPv6 Reachability TLV) are added to each node as leaves, without checking if there is IPv6 connectivity between nodes. 

Reference: https://blog.initialdraft.com/archives/3381/ 


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