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Q431. Refer to the exhibit.
Which two benefits result from using this command on a switch? (Choose two.)
A. The port cannot forward unknown unicast packets.
B. Network security is increased on the configured port.
C. The port cannot forward unknown multicast packets.
D. The port cannot forward unknown broadcast packets.
E. Network security is increased on all ports of the switch.
F. Unknown packets of all types, except unicast, are blocked.
Q432. For which kind of MPLS deployment is the next-hop-self all keyword used on a BGP neighbor command?
B. MPLS Carrier's carrier
C. inter-AS MPLS VPN option D
D. inter-AS MPLS VPN option C
E. Unified MPLS
Since the core and aggregation parts of the network are integrated and end-to-end LSPs are provided, the Unified MPLS solution is also referred to as "Seamless MPLS." New technologies or protocols are not used here, only MPLS, Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), IGP, and BGP. Since you do not want to distribute the loopback prefixes of the PE routers from one part of the network into another part, you need to carry the prefixes in BGP. The Internal Border Gateway Protocol (iBGP) is used in one network, so the next hop address of the prefixes is the loopback prefixes of the PE routers, which is not known by the IGP in the other parts of the network. This means that the next hop address cannot be used to recurse to an IGP prefix. The trick is to make the ABR routers Route Reflectors (RR) and set the next hop to self, even for the reflected iBGP prefixes. In order for this to work, a new knob is needed. Only the RRs need newer software to support this architecture. Since the RRs advertise the BGP prefixes with the next hop set to themselves, they assign a local MPLS label to the BGP prefixes. This means that in the data plane, the packets forwarded on these end-to-end LSPs have an extra MPLS label in the label stack. The RRs are in the forwarding path. There are two possible scenarios:
. The ABR does not set the next hop to self for the prefixes advertised (reflected by BGP) by the ABR into the aggregation part of the network. Because of this, the ABR needs to redistribute the loopback prefixes of the ABRs from the core IGP into the aggregation IGP. If this is done, there is still scalability. Only the ABR loopback prefixes (from the core) need to be advertised into the aggregation part, not the loopback prefixes from the PE routers from the remote aggregation parts.
. The ABR sets the next hop to self for the prefixes advertised (reflected by BGP) by the ABR into the aggregation part. Because of this, the ABR does not need to redistribute the loopback prefixes of the ABRs from the core IGP into the aggregation IGP.
In both scenarios, the ABR sets the next hop to self for the prefixes advertised (reflected by BGP) by the ABR from the aggregation part of the network into the core part. If this is not done, the ABR needs to redistribute the loopback prefixes of the PEs from the aggregation IGP into the core IGP. If this is done, there is no scalability. In order to set the next hop to self for reflected iBGP routes, you must configure the neighbor x.x.x.x next-hop-self all command.
Q433. Which two improvements do SIA-Query and SIA-Reply messages add to EIGRP? (Choose two.)
A. Stuck-in-active conditions are solved faster.
B. They prevent a route from going into the stuck-in-active state.
C. They help in the localization of the real failure in the network.
D. The EIGRP adjacency between two neighbors never goes down.
Q434. Refer to the exhibit.
ASN 64523 has a multihomed BGP setup to ISP A and ISP B. Which BGP attribute can you set to allow traffic that originates in ASN 64523 to exit the ASN through ISP B?
D. multi-exit discriminator
MED is an optional nontransitive attribute. MED is a hint to external neighbors about the preferred path into an autonomous system (AS) that has multiple entry points. The MED is also known as the external metric of a route. A lower MED value is preferred over a higher value. Example at reference link below:
Q435. Which three statements about the route preference of IS-IS are true? (Choose three.)
A. An L1 path is preferred over an L2 path.
B. An L2 path is preferred over an L1 path.
C. Within each level, a path that supports optional metrics is preferred over a path that supports only the default metric.
D. Within each level of metric support, the path with the lowest metric is preferred.
E. The Cisco IS-IS implementation usually performs equal cost path load balancing on up to eight paths.
F. Both L1 and L2 routes will be installed in the routing table at the same time.
Given multiple possible routes to a particular destination, an L1 path is preferred over an L2 path. Within each level, a path that supports the optional metrics is preferred over a path that supports only the default metric. (Again, Cisco supports only the default metric, so the second order of preference is not relevant to Cisco routers.) Within each level of metric support, the path with the lowest metric is preferred. If multiple equal-cost, equal-level paths are found by the Decision process, they are all entered into the route table. The Cisco IS-IS implementation usually performs equal-cost load balancing on up to six paths.
Q436. Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement is true?
A. The Cisco PfR state is UP; however, the external interface Et0/1 of border router 10.1.1.1 has exceeded the maximum available bandwidth threshold.
B. The Cisco PfR state is UP; however, an issue is preventing the border router from establishing a TCP session to the master controller.
C. The Cisco PfR state is UP and is able to monitor traffic flows; however, MD5 authentication has not been successful between the master controller and the border routers.
D. The Cisco PfR State is UP; however, the receive capacity was not configured for inbound traffic.
E. The Cisco PfR state is UP, and the link utilization out-of-policy threshold is set to 90 percent for traffic exiting the external links.
All three interfaces show as UP, and the capacity is set to 500 kbps, with the max threshold set to 450 kbps (90% of 500kbps).
Q437. What is a key advantage of Cisco GET VPN over DMVPN?
A. Cisco GET VPN provides zero-touch deployment of IPSEC VPNs.
B. Cisco GET VPN supports certificate authentication for tunnel establishment.
C. Cisco GET VPN has a better anti-replay mechanism.
D. Cisco GET VPN does not require a secondary overlay routing infrastructure.
DMVPN requires overlaying a secondary routing infrastructure through the tunnels, which results in suboptimal routing while the dynamic tunnels are built. The overlay routing topology also reduces the inherent scalability of the underlying IP VPN network topology. Traditional point-to-point IPsec tunneling solutions suffer from multicast replication issues because multicast replication must be performed before tunnel encapsulation and encryption at the IPsec CE (customer edge) router closest to the multicast source. Multicast replication cannot be performed in the provider network because encapsulated multicasts appear to the core network as unicast data. Cisco’s Group Encrypted Transport VPN (GET VPN) introduces the concept of a trusted group to eliminate point-to-point tunnels and their associated overlay routing. All group members (GMs) share a common security association (SA), also known as a group SA. This enables GMs to decrypt traffic that was encrypted by any other GM. (Note that IPsec CE acts as a GM.) In GET VPN networks, there is no need to negotiate point-to- point IPsec tunnels between the members of a group, because GET VPN is “tunnel-less.”
Reference: Group Encrypted Transport VPN (Get VPN) Design and Implementation Guide PDF
Q438. Which technology is an application of MSDP, and provides load balancing and redundancy between the RPs?
A. static RP
B. PIM BSR
C. auto RP
D. anycast RP
Using Anycast RP is an implementation strategy that provides load sharing and redundancy in Protocol Independent Multicast sparse mode (PIM-SM) networks. Anycast RP allows two or more rendezvous points (RPs) to share the load for source registration and the ability to act as hot backup routers for each other. Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) is the key protocol that makes Anycast RP possible.
Q439. Which two statements about UDP and latency are true? (Choose two.)
A. UDP is connection oriented, so the size of a UDP stream is independent of latency.
B. UDP is connection oriented, so latency can increase the size of a UDP stream.
C. UDP is connectionless, so latency can increase the size of a UDP stream.
D. If latency decreases, throughput also decreases.
E. If latency increases, throughput also increases.
F. Latency can cause jitter on UDP connections.
Q440. Refer to the exhibit.
Which statement about the route target for 192.168.1.0/24 is true?
A. Its route target is 64512:100010051.
B. Its route targets are 64512:100010051, 64512:2002250, and 64512:3002300.
C. Its route target is 64512:3002300.
D. Its route targets are 64512:100010051 and 64512:3002300.
E. Its route targets are 64512:2002250 and 64512:3002300.
Here we are using route maps to change the route target for the 192.168.1.0/24 network from the default route target of 64512:100010051 to 64512:3002300.
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